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Universal immunization programs have been implemented in many countries to protect infants from rhesus-negative mothers. Anti-Rh antibodies are present in the serum of an Rh-individual from early infancy. And can be detected by antibody screening tests.

vaccination, drug, virus @ Pixabay

With this knowledge, universal immunization programs for Rh-negative individuals were created with the goal of eliminating maternal sensitization through passive transfer of anti-D IgG, thereby protecting all fetuses from hemolytic disease. -Anti-Rh antibodies are present in the serum of an Rh-individual from early infancy and can be detected by antibody screening tests.

This will cause hemolytic disease if not removed through serotherapy or transfusion before birth. Fetal sensitization occurs due to passive transfer of anti-“D” IgG across

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